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Thursday, June 30, 2011

Physical Configuration: Robot and Its Classification

Robot and Its Classification

 picture source: http://robotics.youngester.com

Robot can be classified in many ways. Some of them are as follows:
A.      Based on Level of Sophistication
Their generation as are:
1.       First generation robot. Most of the industrial robots currently being used belong to this group.
2.       Second generation robots. These robot have capability to understand the environment by acquiring data.
3.       Third generation robots. These are intelligence robots of the future with characteristic as yet hardly understood.  
B.      Base on Manipulative Function
The robots are classified under three following major headings:
1.       Pick and plate robots. This is simple robot along with a simple gripper designed for clamping an unclamping or parts.
2.       Special purpose. This is designed to perform a specific function such as spray painting, etc welding or features to make them suitable for the intended functions.
3.       Universal Robots. Unlike special purpose robot can be used to perform manipulative type of functions.
C.      Based on Manipulator Geometry
This classification these are:
1.       Cartesian, XYZ
2.       Cylindrical
3.       Polar
4.       Jointed Arm
D.      Base on Motion Characteristics
They are as follow:
1.       Point to point robots capable of taking the end effector from one point to another without attaching any importance in the parts.
2.       Continuous  path robots where the tool moves along a desire path
E.       Base on Type of Control
Robots are classified into two group:
1.       Non servo controlled robots which do not employ feedback control for their drive units making them cheaper and at the same time less expensive.
2.       Servo Controlled robots sense the arm configuration and this information is feedback to the controller for comparison with the desired position.
F.       On the Basis of Technology involved
Robot are classified  as under:
1.       Simple Robot. Simple robot are also called pick and place devices and limited sequence manipulator. These are low cost, easy to maintain, fast and accurate devices and can increase productivity.
2.       Medium Technology Robot. Medium technology robot have a greater memory capacity and are easier to teach than simple robots. Such robots having four to six degrees of freedom with servo control are used for machine loading, palletizing etc.
3.       Sophisticated Industrial Robot. It  has highly flexible programmable manipulators and utilize controller that exemplify the highest level of artificial intelligence used in industry automation.-+
G.     According to Method of Input of Information and Teaching
Robot are classified as under:
1.       Manual Manipulator. Robot having controller and actuators for mobility and or manipulation remotely controlled by human operator. As this is worked by an operator it is called manual manipulator.
2.       Fixed Sequence Robot. A manipulator that performs a given operation an a predetermined sequence, condition and position and whose set information cannot be easily changed is known as fixed sequence robot.
3.       Variable sequence robot. It is manipulator that repetitively performs successive steps of a given operating according to predetermined sequence, condition and position and whose set of information can changed easily.
4.       Playback robot. It is robot that repeats an operation from memory on the basis of interactions concerning sequence, condition and other information imparted by moving the robot under operating control.
5.       Numerically controlled (NC) Robot. It is robot that can execute the commend operation in compliance with information or by programmable without being moved.
6.       Intelligent robot. A robot that can determine it is own action through artificial intelligence.   

By: Heru Susanto
Reference:
Kumar, Dr. Surrender and Mukerje, Dr. S.K, “Robotic Engineering”, Satya Prakashan, New Delhi, 2001. 

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